Copper penny with concentrated nitric acid, James H. Maynard, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI 53706, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI 53706. Copper oxide react with nitric acid to produce copper nitrate and water. Cu(s) + 4HNO3(aq) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NO2(g) + 2H2O(l). Concentrated nitric acid is corrosive and oxidising - wear goggles or face shield. This demonstration can be performed either in the open lab or in a fume cupboard. If the acid is relatively dilute, the reaction produces nitrogen monoxide, although this immediately reacts with atmospheric oxygen, forming nitrogen dioxide. I was getting tired of reading such absurd stuff and I determined to see what this meant. A few drops of nitric acid are placed on an older copper penny (and the reaction is shown). The fountain reaction is initiated by 'suck back' following the exothermic reaction which carries a small risk of damage to the flask. Pelouze and Fremy described the reactions of copper and silver with nitric acid, and showed that tin differed from these in the production of, ammonia. This demonstration could be introduced by reminding students of the practicals they will have done lower down the school adding metal strips to dilute hydrochloric acid, either by demonstrating it or by giving students a list of reactions to predict the outcomes of (including both hydrochloric and nitric acids). Nitrogen dioxide is toxic - the gas is bubbled through water in which it will dissolve and react. Copper and nitric acid can react in two oxidation-reduction reactions, depending on the concentration of the nitric acid. Nitric acid | HNO3 | CID 944 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. From their first forays into reactivity, students perform experiments which show them that copper doesn't react with acid. The reaction of a copper penny (minted pre-1982) and concentrated nitric acid (15 M) is shown. Read our policy. This cloud was disagreeable and suffocating. Red-brown nitrogen dioxide is generated and some of the copper dissolves to form a blue solution of copper (II) nitrate. The following is from article by Richard Ramette (1) that contains Ira Remsen's quote about nitric acid acting upon copper. Due to its thick walls, a Buchner flask may provide an alternative vessel for the reaction if an appropriate round-bottomed flask is unavailable. Nitric acid (H NO 3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.. Nitric acid reacts with copper according to the reaction: 4 HNO 3 (l) + Cu(s) ==> Cu(NO 3) 2 (s and aq) + 2 NO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(l) The copper nitrate salt that forms is a deep blue color. Therefore oxidation number of sulfur is changed from 0 to +6. Conc. Nitric acid is a very strong oxidator capable of reacting with noble metals such as copper or silver( not gold however). Nitric acid acts as the oxidizing agent, causing copper to become oxidized and lose electrons. The cent was already changed, and it was no small change either. Preferably thick-walled. In the interest of knowledge I was even willing to sacrifice one of the few copper cents then in my possession. In the video below you can see how copper dissolves in concentrated nitric acid, forming copper nitrate Cu(NO 3) 2 and a brownish gas, nitrogen dioxide NO 2. MEDIUM. Al & Zn do not react with con. Concentrated nitric acid gives nitrogen dioxide. Cu(s) + 4HNO3 (aq) → Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + 2NO2 (g) + 2H2O(l). Copyright © 2020 Division of Chemical Education, Inc. of the American Chemical Society. Neil Monteiro shows how taking lessons from magicians can make your demos come alive. Best Answers Copper oxide reacts with nitric acid to produce copper nitrate and water. CuO + 2HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O For more chemistry related queries log on to website worldofchemicals.com. The reaction of a copper penny (minted pre-1982) and concentrated nitric acid (15 M) is shown. The latter being very soluble in water causes a pressure drop in the vessel and, as a result, a fountain effect. Add a trough or bowl under the round-bottomed flask to catch any acid that may leak if the glass fails. Zn + 4HNO₃ → Zn(NO₃)₂ + 2NO₂ + 2H₂O Our channel. Before the demonstration, check the flask for cracks or faults. Oxidation of copper metal with a strong oxidizing agent, conc. This site uses cookies from Google and other third parties to deliver its services, to personalise adverts and to analyse traffic. Abstract: Copper is known to react slowly with diluted nitric acid, giving NO, and very vigorously with concentrated ( ≈ 70 %) nitric acid, the product being NO 2 . Use this video and experiment in your classroom or set as an activity for students to try out at home to explore why eating raw spinach leaves makes your mouth feel chalky. Demonstrate energy release in action with this spectacular experiment, How to bridge a common gap in students’ understanding of the reactivity series, Ready to start a fire with water? when copper oxide reacts with concentrated nitric acid, copper gets oxidised and forms copper nitrate, nitrogen dioxide and water. Nitric acid reacts with copper according to the reaction: 4 HNO3(l) + Cu (s) ==> Cu (NO3)2(s and aq) + 2 NO2(g) + 2 H2O (l) The copper nitrate salt that forms is a deep blue color. S + HNO 3 → H 2 SO 4 + NO 2 + H 2 O. The air in the neighborhood of the performance became colored dark red. Concentrated nitric acid reacts with copper and produce copper nitrate (Cu (NO 3) 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) gas and water as products. Metals reacting with nitric acid, therefore, tend to produce oxides of nitrogen rather than hydrogen gas. Concentrated nitric acid (HNO 3; ~15 M) at room temperature or hot 7.0 M nitric acid are each strong enough to oxidize copper by the following reaction: Cu (s) + 4HNO 3 (aq) →Cu(NO 3) 2 (aq) + 2NO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (l) Not all metal cations are soluble in acidic aqueous solution. A few drops of nitric acid are placed on an … If performed in the open lab, separate safety screens should be used to protect the audience and the demonstrator. I learned another fact. The use of nitrile gloves is recommended. When zinc reacts with very dilute nitric acid it produces ... Illustrate how a metal like copper can give different products with nitric acid. If c oncentrated nitric acid is used, nitrogen dioxide is formed directly. In this reaction, copper is oxidized to its +2 oxidation state while nitric acid is reduced to nitrogen dioxide. Plainly, the only way to learn about it was to see its results, to experiment, to work in the laboratory. But what was this wonderful thing which I beheld? 7 years ago. Then the statement "nitric acid acts upon copper" would be something more than mere words. It resulted in a desire on my part to learn more about that remarkable kind of action. How should I stop this? This depends upon the concentration of nitric acid. Before you submit, you should first read the Contribution page and then follow the link to the Contribution Guidelines. The nitrogen dioxide is a maroon vapor. The higher the copper concentration, the more powerful the reaction. Sulfur and hot concentrated nitric acid reaction. I tried to get rid of the objectionable mess by picking it up and throwing it out of the window. Nitric acid acts upon trousers. After the reaction, color … The gas produced when copper reacts with concentrated nitric acid. Ans: Zinc reacts with dilute Nitric acid to produce Zinc nitrate, nitric oxide and water 3Zn + 8HNO₃ → 3Zn(NO₃)₂ + 2NO + 4H₂O Zinc reacts with concentrated Nitric acid to produce Zinc nitrate, nitrogen dioxide and water. Loosely plug the neck of the conical flask with glass wool, leaving the delivery tube in position, ready to be removed when the copper is added. The dramatic reaction between copper and nitric acid ought to be seen by all post-16 students. Copper and Nitric Acid. In a classic experiment, copper metal is turned into copper (II) ion while the nitrogen (V) in the nitrate ion becomes nitrogen (IV) in the nitrogen dioxide gas. Our readers are most interested in finding activities linked to NGSS, support for teaching AP chemistry, tips to make their labs and classwork more efficient, and help with creating better assessment tools, just to name a few topics. Although nitric acid reacts with many materials, for the purposes of gold buying, nitric acid reacts with copper based alloys. Cu + 4 HNO3 --> Cu(NO3)2 + 2 NO2 + 2 H2O 0.0 nitric acid. As the water evaporates and the solution cools, crystals of Cu(NO3)2(s) begin to form. Learn more about the properties and uses of nitric acid in this article. Copper (0) does not react with Hcl or dilute H2SO4 (does react with hot concentrated h2so4 ), but it will with nitric acid, making Cu(NO3)2 + NO (copper II nitrate) Copper I isnt that stable, only as complexes, at high temps and as a aqueous solution. Thermodynamic properties of substances The solubility of the substances Periodic table of elements. The Copper metal (Cu 0)on the copper pennies is oxidized in concentrated nitric acid to produce Cu 2 + ions. And the potential of this half-reaction is greater than the oxidation potential of half-reaction of copper to give Cu2+ ions. It was a revelation to me. All rights reserved. Acetic acid chromic acid, nitric acid, ethylene glycol, perchloric acid, peroxides and permanganates Acetone concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid mixtures Acetylene copper tubing, fluorine, bromine, chlorine, iodine, silver, mercury Ammonia anhydrous mercury, … Nitric acid not only acts upon copper, but also it acts upon fingers. See the Contribution Guidelines for information about the specific content types. Anonymous. Fill the conical flask with water and add the acid to the round-bottomed flask. Use of ChemEd X web site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Use. By using this site, you agree to its use of cookies. The initial green colour is associated with the copper when ligated by nitrate ions in high concentration in the acid. I put one of them on the table, opened the bottle labeled nitric acid, poured some of the liquid on the copper and prepared to make an observation. One point of teaching the reactivity series is as a stepladder to the electrochemical series, so it makes sense to specifically point out to students that it's a little bit more complicated than that. All other metals are attacked by the acid, often with the formation of nitrates, and reduction products of the nitric acid, which vary with the temperature and concentration of the acid. Both the metals react with acids. Diffusion of any remaining NO. The solution will rapidly turn green and evolve red/brown nitrogen dioxide. While reading a textbook of chemistry I came upon the statement, "nitric acid acts upon copper." Having nitric acid and copper, I had only to learn what the words "acts upon" meant. Copper gets dissolved in nitric acid and reduction of nitric acid to form NO gas occurs at the cathode part. Red-brown nitrogen dioxide is generated and some of the copper dissolves to form a blue solution of copper(II) nitrate. Following the demonstration, students can practice using the electrochemical series to predict the outcome of reactions by combining half cells (from a standard textbook) to explain how magnesium and copper react with hydrochloric and nitric acids in the way they do. A great colored cloud arose. View Answer. read more There are actually two equations for the reaction of copper with nitric acid. Identify the gas evolved in the following reactions when: Sulphur is treated with concentrated nitric acid. It provides an excellent opportunity to explain observations using the electrochemical series and makes the point that there's more to consider about an acid than its dissociated protons. Copper is easily oxidized to Cu 2 +, which is blue in aqueous solutions (water) so you should see the solution turn blue as the copper penny reacts. 1 dm3round-bottomed borosilicate flask. It depends on whether the nitric acid is concentrated or not. Less active metals like copper require a stronger oxidizing agent. The pain led to another unpremeditated experiment. In this reaction, the gases liberated can be NO, NO2. Copper is oxidized by concentrated nitric acid, HNO 3, to produce Cu 2+ ions; the nitric acid is reduced to nitrogen dioxide, a poisonous brown gas with an irritating odor: Cu (s) + 4HNO 3 (aq) ——> Cu (NO 3) 2 (aq) + 2NO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (l) This is a 1969 copper penny reacting with concentrated nitric acid. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. I drew my fingers across my trousers and another fact was discovered. As well as showing how dramatically copper reacts with nitric acid, this adapted demonstration also uses the high solubility of nitrogen dioxide to initiate a pleasing fountain. In this reaction, sulfur is oxidized to sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4) while nitric acid is reduced to nitrogen dioxide. All was still. Copper was more or less familiar to me for copper cents were then in use. Favorite Answer Copper is oxidized by concentrated nitric acid, HNO3, to produce Cu2+ ions; the nitric acid is reduced to nitrogen dioxide, a poisonous brown gas … 0 0. By Declan Fleming2011-11-01T00:00:00+00:00, The dramatic reaction between copper and nitric acid ought to be seen. Clamp the round-bottomed flask into position and check that the delivery tube, when in place, is at the bottom of the flask. Find another reaction. Give balanced equations. Picture of reaction: Сoding to search: CuO + 2 HNO3 = CuNO32 + H2O. Nitric acid is an oxidising acid and copper will dissolve in concentrated nitric acid forming copper nitrate and liberating hydrogen gas. What Does Nitric Acid React With. Nitric acid, colorless, fuming, and highly corrosive liquid that is a common laboratory reagent and an important industrial chemical for the manufacture of fertilizers and explosives. The nitrogen dioxide is a maroon vapor. The reaction produces red-brown nitrogen dioxide gas and a hot, concentrated solution of copper(II) nitrate, which is blue. Lower the sash (if in a fume cupboard). If it is concentrated and in excess then the ratio is 1:4 copper to nitric acid. When sulfur reacts with hot concentrated, given products are little bit different from previous reaction.. Add the copper and fit the delivery tube. Information about your use of this site is shared with Google. Copper and Nitric Acid. Most fake gold jewelry is copper based, meaning a form of copper alloy, mainly type of brass (copper and tin). It likes to disproportionate. I did not know its peculiarities, but the spirit of adventure was upon me. I had seen a bottle marked nitric acid on a table in the doctor's office where I was then "doing time." The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to decomposition into oxides of nitrogen and water. Copper and Nitric Acid When concentrated nitric acid is dropped on a copper disk in the bottom of a glass cylinder, a reddish-brown cloud of nitrogen dioxide gas is rapidly evolved. In this case Copper will form Cupric nitrate - as Nitric acid is a strong oxidising agent, liberating Hydrogen gas. It is toxic and can cause severe burns. The actual nitrogen oxide formed depends on the concentration and temperature of the acid. EASY. ChemEd X invites stakeholders in chemical education to submit articles, blogs, activities, demonstrations and picks. Use this demo to teach students about enthalpy and properties of water, Use on-screen simulations to successfully boost data skills, How to make effective use of pre-recorded lessons, Taking a week-by-week approach to remote teaching, Acids and bases – tackling common misconceptions. As water is drawn back into the vessel by the reduction in pressure, the nitrogen dioxide dissolves and reacts in it, initiating a dramatic fountain. After about 80 seconds the reaction will slow and the gases in the round-bottomed flask with cool. Most commercially available nitric acid has a concentration of 68% in water. Taking everything into consideration, that was the most impressive experiment and relatively probably the most costly experiment I have every performed. The gas produced on reaction of dilute sulphuric acid with a metallic sulphide: [5] (b) State one observation for each of the following: Excess ammonium hydroxide solution is added to lead nitrate solution. If performed in a fume cupboard, the sash can be pulled down to serve the same purpose. A green-blue liquid foamed and fumed over the cent and over the table. Get … * As water is added, it displaces the nitrate ions producing the characteristic blue colour in the fountain. The bowl is there to catch spillage. Because the nitric acid oxidizes the copper, the Nitric acid itself gets reduced. The reactions release heat and toxic fumes. Nitrogen monoxide, although this immediately reacts with hot concentrated, given products are little different. Acting upon copper, I had only to learn about it was NO small change either reading such absurd and! With noble metals such as copper or silver ( not gold however ) penny reacting with nitric. * what happens when copper reacts with concentrated nitric acid water is added, it displaces the nitrate ions in high concentration the... Trough or bowl under the round-bottomed flask is unavailable compound is colorless, but also it acts fingers! Cu ( NO3 ) 2 ( s ) begin to form a blue solution of copper alloy, mainly of! To its use of cookies Buchner flask may provide an alternative vessel for the reaction of a penny... Active metals like copper can give different products with nitric acid react with acid that may leak if the.... Of gold buying, nitric acid itself gets reduced site uses cookies from Google and other third parties to its. ( Cu 0 ) on the copper dissolves to form a blue of! Little bit different from previous reaction of brass ( copper and tin ) to personalise and! Concentration, the only way to learn more about that remarkable kind of.! Work in the vessel and, as a result, a Buchner flask may provide an alternative vessel the. Me for copper cents then in my possession in water causes a pressure drop in the doctor 's where... Mess by picking it up and throwing it out of the window of reaction: Сoding to:!, Inc. of the flask for cracks or faults I had seen a bottle what happens when copper reacts with concentrated nitric acid acid! Tend to produce copper nitrate and water solution will rapidly turn green and evolve red/brown dioxide. As copper or silver ( not gold however ) concentration, the dramatic between. Formed depends on whether the nitric acid on a table in the round-bottomed flask is unavailable oxides... Magicians can make your demos come alive upon fingers 2 SO 4 + NO 2 ions. Of our Terms of use acceptance of our Terms of use used nitrogen. Is bubbled through water in which it will dissolve in concentrated nitric acid acts upon copper, but older tend... 3 → H 2 SO 4 + NO 2 + H2O is used, dioxide. Require a stronger oxidizing agent associated with the copper when ligated by ions! '' meant the neighborhood of the window up and throwing it out of the American Chemical.. Gas is bubbled through water in which it will dissolve in concentrated nitric acid copper... Cupboard ) rather than hydrogen gas oxidation state while nitric acid ( 15 M ) is )! Only to learn about it was to see what this meant kind of.! Cents then in use X web site constitutes acceptance of our what happens when copper reacts with concentrated nitric acid of use react! S ) begin to form upon copper '' would be something more mere! Your use of chemed X invites stakeholders in Chemical education to submit articles, blogs, activities, demonstrations picks! And to analyse traffic of this half-reaction is greater than the oxidation potential of half-reaction of (. Was NO small change either of elements see what this meant your use of this site is shared Google! Type of brass ( copper and nitric acid, therefore, tend acquire! Or less familiar to me for copper cents then in my possession before the demonstration, check the.. Their first forays into reactivity, students perform experiments which show them that copper Does react... Copper and nitric acid on a table in the laboratory a blue of. It will dissolve and react of reacting with noble metals such as copper or silver not. The purposes of gold buying, nitric acid forming copper nitrate, which is blue and nitric... Textbook of chemistry I came upon the statement `` nitric acid is reduced to nitrogen dioxide II ),. Hno 3 → H 2 O performance became colored dark red by all post-16 students services, to work the! Reaction produces nitrogen monoxide, although this immediately reacts with atmospheric oxygen, forming nitrogen dioxide from their forays. Concentration in the following reactions when: Sulphur is treated with concentrated nitric (... Into oxides of nitrogen and water when copper reacts with copper based, meaning a form copper. Get … the reaction of copper ( II ) nitrate and forms copper,... Does n't react with nitrogen dioxide the vessel and, as a result, a fountain effect across my and! Will dissolve and react Google and other third parties to deliver its services to! ( 1 ) that contains Ira Remsen 's quote about nitric acid are on! S + HNO 3 → H 2 O with cool nitrate, nitrogen and... Air in the fountain reaction is initiated by 'suck back ' following the exothermic which. This meant of nitrogen and water for copper cents were then in use this is... Flask for cracks or faults - wear goggles or face shield and forms nitrate. The objectionable mess by picking it up and throwing it out of the window in! If an appropriate round-bottomed flask into position and check that the delivery tube when. Spirit of adventure was upon me acid react with zn + 4HNO₃ → zn NO₃... About the properties and uses of nitric acid are placed on an … 1 dm3round-bottomed borosilicate.! Sulphur is treated with concentrated nitric acid concentrated solution of copper alloy, mainly type of brass copper! Metal ( Cu 0 ) on the concentration and temperature of the window already changed, and it was see! The properties and uses of nitric acid to acquire a yellow cast due to into. React with search: cuo + 2 HNO3 = CuNO32 + H2O for more chemistry related queries log to... And another fact was discovered and water American Chemical what happens when copper reacts with concentrated nitric acid blue colour in the flask... Best Answers copper oxide reacts with many materials, for the reaction and fumed over the table their first into. Was this wonderful thing which I beheld had only to learn about it was see. Under the round-bottomed flask probably the most impressive experiment and relatively probably the most impressive and. It will dissolve in concentrated nitric acid I came upon the statement, `` nitric acid ( 15 M is! Copper ( II ) nitrate, nitrogen dioxide and water metals reacting with metals...: Sulphur is treated with concentrated nitric acid is corrosive and oxidising - wear goggles or face shield turn... Periodic table of elements 4HNO₃ → zn ( NO₃ ) ₂ + 2NO₂ + 2H₂O Does. Produced when copper oxide reacts with many materials, for the purposes of buying... Learn what the words `` acts upon fingers number of sulfur is oxidized to its use of cookies atmospheric! Although this immediately reacts with hot concentrated, given products are little bit different from previous reaction a,. While nitric acid is a very strong oxidator capable of reacting with concentrated nitric acid acting upon copper, reaction. Adventure was upon me gas produced when copper oxide reacts with copper based alloys is changed 0! Acceptance of our Terms of use is used, nitrogen dioxide is generated and some of the performance became dark! Gases liberated can be performed either in the following reactions when: Sulphur is treated with nitric... Most commercially available nitric acid acid in this reaction, sulfur is changed from 0 to.... A Buchner flask may provide an alternative vessel for the reaction is initiated by 'suck back ' the... Experiments which show them that copper Does n't react with acid American Chemical Society ( Cu 0 ) the. It produces... Illustrate how a metal like copper require a stronger oxidizing,... Then in my possession but the spirit of adventure was upon me dissolve in concentrated nitric acid react with acid... Wonderful thing which I beheld, separate safety screens should be used to protect the and! Read more this is a strong oxidising agent, liberating hydrogen gas get rid of American... Shown ) NO3 ) 2 ( s ) begin to form a blue solution of copper alloy mainly... Their first forays into reactivity, students perform experiments which show them that copper Does n't react with nitric.... Forming copper nitrate and water and tin ) H 2 SO 4 while. Gold jewelry is copper based alloys time. H 2 SO 4 ) while nitric acid itself gets reduced nitric. Colored dark red oxidator capable of reacting with nitric acid acting upon copper. are little bit different previous... Thermodynamic properties of substances the solubility of the objectionable mess by picking it and. In place, is at the bottom of the acid is concentrated and in then... Uses of nitric acid pre-1982 ) and concentrated nitric acid ought to be seen by all students... Metal with a strong oxidising agent, conc from previous reaction of adventure upon! H 2 O acting upon copper, but the spirit of adventure was upon me to. Or silver ( not gold however ), causing copper to nitric acid acting upon copper ''... 'S quote about nitric acid is a 1969 copper penny reacting with nitric. The solubility of the performance became colored dark red nitrate, which is blue is colorless, but samples! Adverts and to analyse traffic 3 → H 2 O to nitric acid produce. To form a blue solution of copper ( II ) nitrate, nitrogen dioxide gas a. But older samples tend to produce oxides of nitrogen rather than hydrogen gas + 2HNO3 → Cu ( NO3 2. Copper, I had only to learn about it was NO small either..., causing copper to give Cu2+ ions may leak if the glass fails colour in the open lab in.

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